Amer M Johri, Vijay Nambi, Tasneem Z Naqvi, Steven B Feinstein, Esther S H Kim, Margaret M Park, Harald Becher, Henrik Sillesen
J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2020;33:917-33
Atherosclerotic plaque detection by carotid ultrasound provides cardiovascular disease risk stratification. The advantages and disadvantages of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound methods for carotid arterial plaque quantification are reviewed. Advanced and emerging methods of carotid arterial plaque activity and composition analysis by ultrasound are considered. Recommendations for the standardization of focused 2D and 3D carotid arterial plaque ultrasound image acquisition and measurement for the purpose of cardiovascular disease stratification are formulated. Potential clinical application towards cardiovascular risk stratification of recommended focused carotid arterial plaque quantification approaches are summarized.